PROGRAMME OF ACTION
THE CHALLENGES FACING THE MUSLIM UMMAH
IN THE 21ST
EXTRAORDINARY SESSION OF
ISLAMIC SUMMIT CONFERENCE
al Mukarramah - Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
dhul qa’dah 1426 h 7-8 December 2005
World is faced with grave political, socio-economic, cultural
and scientific challenges with implications for its unity,
peace, security and development. OIC Member States would need to
cooperate decisively in order to face these challenges and to
take necessary initiatives to overcome them. It
has therefore become imperative for them to take joint actions
within the framework of the OIC, based on common values and
ideals so as to revive the Muslim Ummah's pioneering role as a
fine example of tolerance and enlightened moderation, and a
force for international peace and harmony.
of these challenges and anxious to bring the Ummah out of its
present situation into a new reality marked by greater
solidarity and more prosperity to achieve its decisive
objectives and aspirations, the Custodian of the Two Holy
Mosques, King Abdullah Ibn Abdulaziz, addressed the pilgrims on
Eid Al-Adha Day in 1425 H, and called upon the leaders of the
Muslim Ummah to convene an Extraordinary Conference of the
leaders of OIC Member States to consider the issues of
solidarity and Joint Islamic Action.
preparation for this Extraordinary Conference, the Custodian of
the Two Holy Mosques invited the scholars and intellectuals of
the Ummah to meet in Makkah Al-Mukarramah in order to consider
the state of the Ummah, develop visions and concepts and propose
optimal solutions to the challenges facing the Ummah in all
fields. Accordingly, an elite group of Muslim scholars and
intellectuals from different countries met in Makkah Al-Mukarramah
from 5 to 7 Shaaban 1426 H (9-11 September 2005) and examined
the challenges facing the Ummah in the intellectual, cultural,
political, media, economic and developmental fields.
They also formulated a number of recommendations to
effectively address these challenges.
the views and recommendations of scholars and intellectuals,
convinced of the potential for the Muslim Ummah to achieve its
renaissance, and in order to take practical steps towards
strengthening the bonds of Islamic solidarity, achieve unity of
ranks, and project the true image and noble values of Islam and
its civilizational approaches, a Ten-Year Programme of Action
has been developed, which reviews the most prominent challenges
facing the Muslim world today, as well as ways and means to
address them in an objective and realistic way in order to serve
as a practicable and workable programme for all OIC Member
intellectual and political fields, there are major issues, such
as establishing the values of moderation and tolerance,
combating extremism, violence and terrorism, countering
Islamophobia, achieving solidarity and cooperation among Member
States, conflict prevention, the question of Palestine, the
rights of Muslim minorities and communities, and rejecting
unilateral sanctions. All of these are issues which require a
renewed commitment to be addressed through effective strategies.
In this context, special attention needs to be given to Africa,
which is the most affected region, due to poverty, diseases,
illiteracy, famine, and debt burden.
economic and scientific fields, the Ummah needs to achieve
higher levels of development and prosperity, given its abundant
economic resources and capacities. Priority must be given to
enhancing economic cooperation, intra-OIC trade, alleviating
poverty in OIC Member States, particularly in conflict-affected
areas, and addressing issues related to globalization, economic
liberalization, environment, and science and technology.
education and culture, there is an urgent need to tackle the
spread of illiteracy and low standards of education at all
levels as well as a need to redress ideological deviation. In
the social field, it is imperative to focus on the rights of
women, children and the family.
implementing the new vision and goals for the Muslim world, the
role of the OIC is central, which requires its reform in a way
that meets the hopes and aspirations of the Ummah in the 21st
this new vision and mission for a brighter, more prosperous and
dignified future for the Ummah, We, the Kings, Heads of
State and Heads of Government of the OIC Member States, decide
to adopt the following Ten-Year Programme of Action, with a
mid-term review, for immediate implementation:
INTELLECTUAL AND POLITICAL ISSUES
Demonstrate the necessary political will in order to translate
the anticipated new vision into concrete reality and call upon
the Secretary-General to take necessary steps to submit
practical proposals to the Member States for consideration and
subsequent submission to the Islamic Conference of Foreign
Urge Member States to fully implement the provisions of the OIC
Charter and resolutions.
II. Solidarity and Joint Islamic Action
Demonstrate strong commitment and credibility in Joint Islamic
Action by effective implementation of OIC resolutions, and to
focus on the adoption of implementable resolutions until the
Ummah reaches its objectives. In this context, the Secretary
General should be enabled to fully play his role in following up
the implementation of all OIC resolutions.
Affirm commitment to Islamic solidarity among the OIC Member
States vis-à-vis the challenges and threats faced or
experienced by the Muslim Ummah, and request the Secretary
General to elaborate a general framework, in consultation with
Member States, on their duties and obligations in this regard,
including solidarity and support to Member States who are facing
Participate and coordinate effectively in all regional and
international forums, in order to protect and promote the
collective interests of the Muslim Ummah, including UN reform,
expanding the Security Council membership, and extending the
necessary support to candidatures of OIC Member States to
international and regional organizations.
Continue to support the issue of Al Quds Al Sharif as a central
cause of the OIC and the Muslim Ummah.
Reaffirm previous resolutions and decisions of the OIC on
Kashmir, Cyprus, Nagorno Karabakh and Somalia and demonstrate
solidarity with these Muslim peoples in their just causes.
III. Islam - The Religion of Moderation and Tolerance
Endeavour to spread the correct ideas about Islam as a religion
of moderation and tolerance and to safeguard Islamic values,
beliefs and principles in order to fortify Muslims against
extremism and narrow-mindedness.
Condemn extremism in all its forms and manifestations, as it
contradicts Islamic and human values; and address its political,
economic, social, and cultural root-causes, through development
programmes and resolution of long-standing conflicts, which are
to be faced with rationality, persuasion, and good counsel.
Emphasize that inter-civilizational dialogue, based on mutual
respect and understanding, and equality amongst people are
prerequisites for international peace and security, tolerance,
peaceful co-existence, and participation in
developing the mechanism for that dialogue.
Encourage inter-religious dialogue and underline common values
Ensure the participation of the OIC and its specialized bodies,
as a proactive partner in the dialogue among civilizations
and religions, as well as in initiatives and efforts exerted in
Utilize the different mass media in order to serve and defend
the causes of the Muslim Ummah, promote the noble principles and
values of Islam, and correct misconceptions about
Strive for the teaching of Islamic education, culture,
civilization, and the jurisprudence and
literature of difference; call on Member States to cooperate
amongst themselves in order to develop balanced educational
curricula that promote values of tolerance, human rights,
openness, and understanding of other religions and cultures;
reject fanaticism and extremism, and establish pride in the
IV. Multiplicity of Islamic Jurisprudence
Underline the need to strengthen dialogue among Islamic Schools,
affirm the true faith of their followers and the inadmissibility
of accusing them of heresy, as well as the inviolability of
their blood, honor and property, as long as they believe in
Allah Almighty, in the Prophet (PBUH) and in the other pillars
of the Islamic faith, respect the pillars of Islam and do not
deny any self-evident tenet of religion.
Condemn the audacity of those who are not qualified in issuing
religious rulings (fatwa), thereby flouting the tenets and
pillars of the religion and the
well-established schools of
jurisprudence. Consequently, compliance with the principle of
fatwa, as approved by scholars, must be observed in line with
the relevant provisions of the International Islamic Conference
held in Amman in late July 2005 and in the recommendations of
the Forum of Muslim Scholars and Intellectuals Preparatory to
the Summit convened by the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques in
Makkah Al Mukarramah from 9 to 11 September 2005.
V. The Islamic
Entrust the Secretary General to invite a group from the members
of the Islamic Fiqh Academy and eminent Islamic scholars from
outside to prepare a detailed study to develop the IFA's work in
accordance with the following objectives, for consideration by
Coordinate religious ruling (fatwa) authorities in the Muslim
Counter religious and sectarian extremism, refrain from accusing
Islamic schools of heresy, emphasize dialogue among them, and
strengthen balance, moderation, and tolerance.
Refute fatwas that take Muslims away from the parameters and
constants of their religion and its established schools.
Emphasize the condemnation of terrorism in all its forms, and
reject any justification or rationalization for it, consider it
as a global phenomenon that is not connected with any religion,
race, color, or country, and distinguish it from the legitimate
resistance to foreign occupation, which does not sanction the
killing of innocent civilians.
Introduce comprehensive qualitative changes to national laws and
legislations in order to criminalize all terrorist practices as
well as all practices to support, finance, or instigate
Affirm commitment to the OIC Convention on Combating Terrorism,
participate actively in international counter-terrorism efforts,
and endeavor to implement the recommendations of the
International Conference on Combating Terrorism, held in Riyadh
in February 2005, including the establishment of an
International Center for Combating Terrorism, as well as the
recommendations of the Special Meeting of OIC Foreign Ministers
on Terrorism, held in Kuala Lumpur in April 2002.
Support efforts to develop an International Code of Conduct to
Combat Terrorism and to convene an international conference or a
special session of the UN General Assembly to reiterate the
international consensus on establishing a comprehensive strategy
to combat this dangerous phenomenon.
Emphasize the responsibility of the international community,
including all governments, to ensure respect for all religions
and combat their defamation.
Affirm the need to counter Islamophobia, through the
establishment of an observatory at the OIC General Secretariat
to monitor all forms of Islamophobia, issue an annual report
thereon, and ensure cooperation with the relevant Governmental
and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in order to counter
Endeavor to have the United Nations adopt an international
resolution to counter Islamophobia, and call upon all States to
enact laws to counter it, including deterrent punishments.
Initiate a structured and sustained dialogue in order to project
the true values of Islam and empower Muslim countries to help in
the war against extremism and terrorism.
Human Rights and Good Governance:
Seriously endeavor to enlarge the scope of political
participation, ensure equality, civil liberties and social
justice and to promote transparency and accountability, and
eliminate corruption in the OIC Member States.
Call upon the Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers to
consider the possibility of establishing an independent
permanent body to promote human rights in the Member States, in
accordance with the provisions of the Cairo Declaration on Human
Rights in Islam and to also call for the elaboration of an OIC
Charter for Human Rights. Introduce changes to national laws and
regulations in order to guarantee the respect of human rights in
Mandate the OIC General Secretariat to cooperate with other
international and regional organizations to guarantee the rights
of Muslim Minorities and Communities in non-OIC Member States,
and promote close cooperation with the Governments of the States
hosting Muslim communities.
Palestine and the Occupied Arab Territories
Make all efforts to end the Israeli occupation of Palestinian
territories occupied since 1967, including East Jerusalem, the
Syrian Golan and the full completion of the Israeli withdrawal
from all remaining Lebanese territories, in compliance with
Security Council Resolution 425, and extend effective support
for the Palestinian people’s right to self-determination and the
establishment of their independent State with Al-Quds Al-Sharif
as its capital.
Maintain a united stand on the comprehensive resolution of the
Palestinian question according to OIC resolutions, UN
resolutions, including UN Security
Council Resolutions 242, 338, 1515 and UN General Assembly
194, the Arab Peace Initiative, and the Roadmap, in coordination
and consultation with the UN, the Quartet, and other
stakeholders, such as to make full withdrawal as a prerequisite
for establishing normal relations with Israel, and for providing
the OIC with a greater role in establishing peace.
Emphasize the central importance of the cause of Al-Quds for the
Muslim Ummah, the need to establish the Palestinian rights in
the city, preserve its heritage as well as its Arab and Islamic
identity as a symbol of solidarity and the meeting point of
divine religions; underline the sanctity of Al-Aqsa Mosque and
its premises against violations and the need to protect the
other Islamic and Christian holy places, counter the judaization
of the Holy City, and support the efforts of Al-Quds Committee
under the chairmanship of His Majesty King Mohamed VI;
call for support to Baytmal Al-Quds and Al-Aqsa Fund,
support the steadfastness of Al-Quds population and
institutions, and establish Al-Aqsa University in Al-Quds Al-Sharif.
Extend full support to the Palestinian Authority in its efforts
to negotiate for the inalienable Palestinian rights and extend
necessary assistance to ensure control of all Palestinian
territories, international crossings, reopen
airport and seaport, and connect Gaza with the West Bank in
order to ensure free movement of the Palestinians.
Work together with the international community to compel
stop and dismantle its settlements in the occupied Palestinian
territories and the occupied Syrian Golan; remove the racist
separation Wall built inside the Palestinian territories,
including within and around the city of Al-Quds, in accordance
with the relevant UN resolutions and the Opinion of the
International Court of Justice (ICJ).
Conflict Prevention, Conflict Resolution and
Post-conflict Peace Building
Strengthen the role of the OIC in conflict prevention,
confidence-building, peacekeeping, conflict resolution and
post-conflict rehabilitation in OIC Member
States as well as in conflict situations involving Muslim
Enhance cooperation among the OIC Member States and between the
OIC and international and regional organizations in order to
protect the rights and interests of the Member States in
conflict prevention, conflict resolution, and post-conflict
Reform of the OIC
Reform the OIC through restructuring, and consider changing its
name, review its Charter and activities and provide it with
highly qualified manpower, in such a manner as to promote its
role, reactivate its institutions and strengthen its relations
with the officially recognized NGOs in the OIC
Member States; empower the Secretary-General to discharge his
duties and provide him with sufficient flexibility and the
resources that enable him to carry out the tasks assigned to him
and strengthen all OIC specialized and affiliated organs in
order to allow them to play their aspired role,
and reinforce coordination with the
General Secretariat, and request it to review the activities of
these organs and recommend the dissolution of those that prove
to be inefficient.
Establish a mechanism for the follow-up of resolutions by
creating an Executive Body, comprising the
Ministerial Troikas, the OIC host country, and the General
Secretariat. The Member States concerned should be invited to
participate in the deliberations of these meetings.
Mandate the Secretary-General to prepare a study to strengthen
the role of Islamic Solidarity Fund and develop it, and submit
the study to the Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers.
Urge Member States to pay in full and on time their mandatory
contributions to the General Secretariat and Subsidiary Organs,
in accordance with relevant resolutions, in order to enable
Member States to avail themselves of the facilities and services
offered by OIC subsidiary organs and specialized and affiliated
2. DEVELOPMENT, SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND SCIENTIFIC
Call upon the Member States to sign and ratify all existing OIC
trade and economic agreements, and to implement the provisions
of the relevant OIC Plan of Action to Strengthen
Economic and Commercial Cooperation among OIC Member States.
Mandate COMCEC to promote measures to expand the scope of
intra-OIC trade, and to consider the possibility of establishing
a Free Trade Area between the Member States in order to achieve
greater economic integration to raise it to a percentage of 20%
of the overall trade volume during the period covered by the
plan, and call on the Member States to support its activities
and to participate in those activities at the highest possible
level with delegations possessing the necessary expertise.
Promote endeavors for institutionalized and enhanced cooperation
between OIC and regional and international institutions working
in the economic and commercial fields.
Support OIC Member States in their efforts to accede to the
World Trade Organization (WTO), and promote concerted positions
between the Member States within the WTO.
Call upon the OIC Member States to facilitate the freedom of
movement of businessmen and investors across their borders.
Support expanding electronic commerce among the
States and call on the Islamic Chamber of Commerce and Industry
to strengthen its activities in the field of data and expertise
exchanges between chambers of commerce of the Member States.
Call upon the Member States to coordinate their environmental
policies and positions in international environmental fora so as
to prevent any adverse effects of such policies on their
Supporting the Islamic Development Bank (IDB)
Establish a special fund within the IDB in order to help address
and alleviate poverty, and provide job opportunities; and
commission the IDB Board of Governors to establish this special
fund, including mechanisms for its financing.
Mandate the Islamic Development Bank to coordinate with the OIC
General Secretariat in order to make the necessary contacts with
the World Health Organization and other relevant institutions to
draw up a programme for combating diseases and epidemics, to be
financed through the special fund that will be created within
Commission the IDB Board of Governors to take necessary measures
for ensuring a substantial increase in the Bank’s authorized,
subscribed, and paid-up capital, so as to enable
it to strengthen its role in providing financial support and
technical assistance to OIC Member States,
and strengthen the Islamic Corporation
for Trade Finance recently established within the IDB.
Urge the IDB to develop its mechanisms and programmes aimed at
cooperation with the private sector and to consider streamlining
and activating its decision-making process.
Urge the IDB and its institutions to promote investment
opportunities and intra-OIC trade, and to conduct other
feasibility studies to provide the necessary information to
develop and promote joint ventures.
Social solidarity in the face of natural disasters
Islam advocates solidarity with, and assistance to, all the
needy without discrimination, which requires the Islamic States
to develop and adopt a clear strategy on Islamic relief action
and support the trend towards cooperation and coordination
between individual relief efforts of Islamic States and Islamic
civil society institutions on the one hand, and international
civil society institutions and organizations on the other hand.
Help countries affected by these disasters to rebuild their
Supporting development and poverty alleviation in
Promote activities aimed at achieving economic and social
development in African countries, including supporting
industrialization, energizing trade and investment, transferring
technology, alleviating their debt burden and poverty, and
eradicating diseases; welcome the New Economic Partnership for
African Development (NEPAD), adopt to this end, a special
programme for the development of
Call upon the Member States to participate in international
efforts to support programmes aimed at alleviating poverty and
capacity-building in the Least-Developed Member States of
Urge donor Member States to cancel bilateral and multilateral
debts to low-income Member States.
Urge international specialized institutions and organizations to
exert greater efforts to alleviate poverty in the
Least-Developed Member States and assist Muslim societies, the
refugees and displaced in the OIC Member States, and
Muslim Minorities and Communities in non-OIC Member States; urge
States to contribute to the World Fund for Solidarity and
Higher Education, Science and Technology
Effectively improve and reform educational institutions and
curricula in all levels, link postgraduate studies to the
comprehensive development plans of the Islamic World. At the
same time, priority should be given to science and technology
and facilitating academic interaction and exchange of knowledge
among the academic institutions of
States, and urge the Member States to strive for quality
education that promotes creativity, innovation, and research and
Assimilate highly-qualified Muslims within the Muslim World,
develop a comprehensive strategy in order to utilize their
expertise and prevent brain migration phenomenon.
Entrust the General Secretariat to study the creation of an OIC
Award for Outstanding Scientific Achievements by Muslim
Call upon Islamic countries to encourage research and
development programmes, taking into account that the global
percentage of this activity is 2% of the Gross Domestic Product
(GDP), and request Member States to ensure that their individual
contribution is not inferior to half of this percentage.
Take advantage of the important results of the World Summit on
Information Society, held in Tunis, in which all Muslim States
actively participated with a view to close the digital gap
between the developed and developing States and request the
General Secretariat to follow up these results in order to build
the capacities of Member States to adhere to the information
society which, in turn, will sustain development in Muslim
Encourage public and private national research institutions to
invest in technology capacity-building, in areas of advanced
technologies, such as the acquisition of nuclear technology for
Review the performance of the OIC-affiliated universities so as
to improve their effectiveness and efficiency, and call for
participation in the two Waqfs (Endowments) dedicated to the two
Uganda, and provide support to the International Islamic
University in Malaysia.
Call upon the Member States to extend enhanced support to the
Islamic University of Technology in
in order to enable it to contribute more towards capacity
building of the OIC Member States through human resources
Urge the IDB to further enhance its programme of scholarships
for outstanding students and Hi-Tech specializations aimed at
developing the scientific, technical, and research capabilities
of scientists and researchers in the Member States.
Rights of Women, Youth, Children, and the Family in the
Strengthen laws aimed at enhancing the advancement of women in
Muslim societies in economic, cultural, social, and political
fields, in accordance with Islamic values of justice and
equality; and aimed also at protecting women from all forms of
violence and discrimination and adhering to the provisions of
the Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination
against Women, in line with the Islamic values of justice and
Give special attention to women’s education and female literacy.
Expedite developing “The Covenant on the Rights of Women in
Islam”, in accordance with Resolution No. 60/27-P and
the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam.
Strive to provide free and quality basic education for all
Strengthen laws aimed at preserving the rights of children,
enjoying the highest possible health levels, taking effective
measures in order to eradicate poliomyelitis and protect them
from all forms of violence and exploitation.
Encourage the Member States to sign and ratify the OIC Covenant
on the Rights of the Child in Islam, the United Nations
Declaration on the Rights of the Child in Islam, the UN
Convention on the Rights of the Child and its annexed Optional
Protocols, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women and its Optional Protocol with
regard to the Girl Child.
Call upon all Member States to support and promote youth
programmes and youth forums.
Call upon the OIC to contribute towards projecting Islam as a
religion that guarantees full protection of women's rights and
encourages their participation in all walks of life.
Accord necessary attention to the family as the principal
nucleus of the Muslim society, exert all possible efforts, at
all levels, to face up to the contemporary social challenges
confronting the Muslim family and affecting its cohesion, on the
basis of Islamic values.
Establish a Division responsible for Family Affairs within the
framework of the General Secretariat’s restructuring.
Cultural and Information Exchange among Member States
Call upon TV channels and the mass media to deal with
international mass media effectively in order to enable the
Muslim world to express its perspective on international
developments. Call on the mass media in Member States, including
satellite channels, to agree on a Code of Ethics that caters for
diversity and pluralism and safeguards the Ummah's values and
interests. Mandate the Secretary-General to prepare a report to
evaluate the current situation of IINA, ISBO, and the OIC
Information Department; consider ways and means to activate the
role and mechanisms of the media within the framework of the OIC
System; and submit proposals, in this regard,
to the Islamic Conference of Information Ministers for
consideration. Accord attention to Arabic as the language of
Qur'an, develop programmes for translation between the languages
of the Muslim Ummah, and implement programs of cultural
exchanges among the OIC Member States, including Observer
Strengthen COMIAC in order to give more care to information and
cultural issues in Member States. In this context, the Member
States should voluntarily support digital solidarity and allow
the OIC to actively participate in the efforts to reduce the